Network Enhancers - "Delivering Beyond Boundaries" Headline Animator

Sunday, July 31, 2011

Jordan picks Cisco to deploy HealthPresence

The Jordan government and Cisco launched a regional health clinic that will use Cisco Care-at-a-Distance technology to bring patients and physicians at the Al-Mafraq Governmental Hospital, in the north-east of Jordan, together with specialists at Prince Hamzah Hospital in Amman for healthcare consultations. This first implementation of Cisco's HealthPresence system in the Middle East and Africa region demonstrates how technology can transform the delivery of healthcare in rural areas, the company said. As part of the Jordan Healthcare Initiative, Cisco has collaborated with the government of Jordan to provide thought leadership in ICT-enabled healthcare as well as to support the initial implementation of Cisco Care-at-a-Distance Solution to help enable quality healthcare services for remote and underserved communities. The deployment of Cisco HealthPresence to connect Al-Mafraq Governmental Hospital to Prince Hamzah Hospital marks one of the first projects under the JHI strategy.

Internet users: Top 10 countries

 Nothing changed the world as much as did the Internet. It revolutionised communication across the world and transformed it into a global village.

Here are a few interesting facts about the wonder called Internet:

  • There are a total of 1.8 billion Internet users in the world.
  • There are 32 countries with more than 10 million Net users.
  • China together with the United States make up half of the Net users in the world.
  • Out of the top 20 countries, the five with the highest Net penetration (not users) are: United Kingdom (82.5%), South Korea (81.1%), Germany (79.1%), Japan (78.2%), United States (76.3%).
  • Seven out of the top 20 countries are Asian (35%).
  • Five out of the top 20 countries are European (25%). Six (30%) if you also count Russia.
  • Three of the top 20 are English-language countries (four if you count India).

Rank 1: China; 420 million Internet users
Despite the controversies that Google faced in China, the country leads as far as Internet users are concerned.
On September 20, 1987, China's first Net connection was established between Beijing and Karlsruhe University in Germany.
The first e-mail went out on September 14, 1987 with the message 'Across the Great Wall, we can reach every corner in the world'.
It is projected that China's Internet population will reach 469 million by the end of 2010, and the number will hit 718 million by 2013.

Rank 2: United States; 239 million Internet users

In the United States, it all started in the late 1960s, when Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency developed a project called the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network).

The Internet, which grew out of this initial project, first gained a public face in the 1990s.

By 2004, three quarters of Americans had Internet access at home, and by June 2010 total number of Internet users stands 234.4 million.

Interestingly, in 2008, the United States ranked 15th out of 30 countries in broadband penetration rates.

This low worldwide ranking is surprising to many, as the Internet itself was invented in the United States.

The country ranked behind most other developed nations, including the UK, Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland, and Canada.

Rank 3: Japan; 99 million Internet users

The Washington Post
in a report once wrote, 'Americans invented the Internet, but the Japanese are running away with it.'

Japan has the world's third fastest Internet connections (7.8 Mbps), delivering more data at a lower cost than almost anywhere else.

The speed advantage allows the Japanese to watch broadcast-quality, full-screen television over the Internet, an experience that mocks the grainy, wallet- size images Americans endure, WSJ wrote.

Overcoming the substantial barriers erected by the Japanese government to the introduction of the Internet, promoters and entrepreneurs managed to create an flexible and dynamic Internet society.

From a slow start, Japan has emerged as the global leader in the mobile Internet.

Rank 4: India; 81 million Internet users

Internet in India was established more than a decade ago as ERNET -- Educational Research Network.

It was a joint undertaking of the Department of Electronics of the Government of India, and the United Nations Development Program.

On August 15 1995, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited launched the Gateway Internet Access Service.

In 1998, India introduced new Internet Service Provider policy which ended Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited's monopoly on Internet.

Rank 5: Brazil; 75 million Internet users

The Internet was launched in Brazil in 1988, when the now defunct National Research Network was formed by the academic communities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.

It was introduced to the general public, in 1995. Brazilian Internet depended strongly on efforts led by the Federal government and the state-owned communications company Embratel and its holding, Telebras.

This changed in 1998, as a result of the privatisation of Telebras, and the blossoming of private groups such as Telefonica, Telemar and Brasil Telecom.'

Rank 6: Germany; 65 million Internet users

Competition in the Internet market in Germany is intense and, like all areas of the telecom market, there is a wide range of companies offering services and promotional rates to customers.

High speed Internet access is best through a DSL connection and there are many options for telephone and Internet packages.

Most towns and cities have Internet cafes and Internet 'hotspots' providing access via laptop or short-range wireless LAN.

Using the Internet to make telephone calls (Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP) is gradually.

Rank 7: Russia; 59 million Internet users

It all started in january 1990 with the creation of the social organisation Glasnet (Glasnost + Network).

The name and funding was provided by San Francisco-based Association for Progressive Communication.

IT provided grants, which financed Internet work for teachers, human rights workers, ecologists, informal groups and other guarantors of the open society.

In 1993, Glasnet became a commercial provider.

Russia still has some e-addresses that have existed since 1991, which were among the first 150 Russian (or, rather, Soviet) electronic addresses.

In 1994 Russia opened its first website - Moscow Libertarium.

It is one of the oldest sites on the Russian Internet and is supposed to be among the first 3,000 WWW sites in the world.

Rank 8: United Kingdom; 62 million Internet users

Broadband Internet access in the UK was, initially, provided by a large number of regional Cable television and telephone companies which gradually merged into larger groups.'

More than half of UK homes have broadband.

Currently Internet access is available to businesses and home users in various forms, including dial-up, cable, DSL, and wireless.

Rank 9: France; 44 million Internet users

France has several high-speed/DSL ISPs which all offer more or less the same deal: unlimited Internet, TV, and telephone (with free calls to fixed phones in dozens of countries) for about euro 30 per month.

In February this year, the lower house of the French parliament approved a draft bill that will allow the state unprecedented control over the Internet.

Although the government said it will improve security for ordinary citizens, civil rights activists warned of a 'new level' of censorship and surveillance.
Rank 10: Nigeria; 43 million Internet users

How many Nigerian scam mails do you receive in a week? Innumerable would probably your answer.

However, ICT experts of the country are concerned about Nigeria's disinterest in the Internet.

They feel the country needs massive, cheap high speed Internet to further progress and improve access to connectivity.

While the global average broadband penetration is 30 per cent, in Nigeria broadband has a little penetration of one per cent out of the estimated seven per cent of Internet access.

Saturday, July 30, 2011

Network Operating System Evolution - Part III

Open Architecture

An interesting implication of vertical modularity is the capability to structure code well enough to document appropriate software interfaces and allow external pluggable code. While a high degree of modularity within a system allows easy porting to different and diverse hardware architectures, a well-defined and documented application programming interface (API) can be made available to third parties for development of their own applications.

In Junos OS, the high degree of modularity and documentation eventually took the form of the Partner Solution Development Platform (PSDP), which opened the API and tool chain specific to Juniper to customers and integrators worldwide. PSDP allows these customers and integrators to co-design the operating system, fitting it precisely to their needs, especially in support of advanced and confidential applications. The degree of development may vary from minor changes to software appearance to full-scale custom packet processing tailored to specific needs.

The Juniper Networks Software Developer’s Kit (SDK) highlights the achievements of Junos OS in network code design and engineering and reflects the innovation that is integral to Juniper’s corporate culture. This high level of synergy between original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vendors and operators promises to enable creation of new services and competitive business differentiators, thus removing the barriers to network transformation. Just as the open-source FreeBSD was the donor OS for Junos OS, with the Juniper Networks SDK, Junos OS is now a platform open to all independent developers.
Product Maintenance
Another important characteristic of products is maintainability. It covers the process of dealing with software defects and new features, abilities to improve existing code, and the introduction of new services and capabilities. It also makes a big difference in the number and quality of NOC personnel that is required to run a network. Maintainability is where a large portion of OPEX resides.

 Routers are complex devices that depend on thousands of electronic components and millions of code lines to operate. This is why some portion of the router installed base will almost inevitably experience software or hardware defects over the product life span.

So far, we have been describing the recovery process, in which state replication and process restarts are the basis of continuous operation. In most cases, Junos OS will recover so efficiently that customers never notice the problem, unless they closely monitor the system logs. A failing process may restart instantly with all the correct state information, and the router operation will not be affected.

But even the best recovery process does not provide healing; software or hardware component remains defective and may cause repeated failures if it experiences the same condition again. The root cause for the failure needs to be tracked and eliminated, either through a software fix or a hardware replacement.

Traditionally, this bug investigation begins with a technical assistance center (TAC) ticket opened by a customer and requires intensive interaction between the customer and vendor engineers. Once identified, the problem is usually resolved through a work-around, software upgrade or hardware replacement, all of which must be performed manually.
 Since the early days of Junos OS, Juniper Networks routers were designed to include the built-in instrumentation needed to diagnose and remedy problems quickly. Reflecting Juniper’s origins as a carrier-class routing company, every Junos OS system in existence comes with an extensive array of software and hardware gear dedicated to device monitoring and analysis. Juniper has been a pioneer in the industry with innovations such as persistent logging, automatic core file creation and development tools (such as GDB) embedded in Junos OS, all facilitating fast defect tracing and decision making). In the traditional support model, customers and Juniper Networks TAC (JTAC) engineers jointly use those tools to zero in on a possible issue and resolve it via configuration change or software fix.
In many cases, this is enough to resolve a case in real time, as soon as the defect traces are made available to Juniper Networks Customer Support.

However, Juniper would never have become a market leader without a passion for innovation. We see routing systems with embedded intelligence and self-healing capabilities as the tools for ensuring survivability and improving the user experience. Going far beyond the automated hardware self-checking normally available from many vendors, Junos OS can not only collect data and analyze its own health, but can also report this state back to the customer and to the JTAC with the patent-pending Advanced Insight Service (AIS) technology. As a result, the router that experiences problems can get immediate vendor attention around the clock and without involving NOC personnel. A support case can be automatically created and resolved before operators are aware of the issue. If a code change is needed, it will go into the next maintenance or major Junos OS release and will be available through a seamless upgrade on the router. This cycle is the basis of self-healing Junos OS operation and paves the way to dramatic OPEX savings for existing networks.
 The main difference between AIS and similar call-home systems is the degree of embedded intelligence.
 AIS-enabled Junos OS both monitors itself for apparent failures such as a process crash or laser malfunction and proactively waits for early signs of problems such as degrading storage performance or increasing number of unresolved packets in the forwarding path. Triggered and periodic health checks are continuously improved based on actual field cases encountered and resolved by the JTAC, thus integrating the collective human expertise into the running of Junos OS systems. Further, AIS is fully programmable with new health metrics and triggers that customers can add. Better yet, in its basic form, AIS comes with every Junos OS system—for free.

 An often forgotten but very important aspect of functional separation is the capability to troubleshoot and analyze a production system. As the amount of code that constitutes a network operating system is often measured in hundreds of megabytes, software errors are bound to occur in even the most robust and well-regressed designs. Some errors may be discovered only after a huge number of protocol transactions have accumulated on a system with many years of continuous operation. Defects of this nature can rarely be predicted or uncovered even with extensive system testing.
 After the error is triggered and the damage is contained by means of automatic software recovery, the next step is to collect the information necessary to find the problem and to fix it in the production code base. The speed and effectiveness of this process can be critical to the success of the entire network installation because most unresolved code defects are absolutely not acceptable in production networks.

This is where proper functional separation comes into major play. When a software defect is seen, it is likely to become visible via an error message or a faulty process restart (if a process can no longer continue). Because uptime is paramount to the business of networking, routers are designed to restart the failing subsystem as quickly as possible, typically in a matter of milliseconds.

When this happens, the original error state is lost, and software engineers will not be able to poke around a live system for possible root causes of the glitch. Unless the defect is trivial and easily understood, code designers may take some time to recreate and understand the issue. Offsite reproduction can be challenging, because replicating the exact network conditions and sequence of events can be difficult, and sometimes impossible. In this case, the post-mortem memory image (core dump) of the failing process is indispensable because it contains the state of data structures and variables, which can be examined for integrity. It is not uncommon for Junos OS engineers to resolve a defect just by analyzing the process core dump.

The catch here is that in tightly coupled processes, the failure of one process may actually be triggered by an error in another process. For example, RSVP may accept a “poisoned” traffic engineering database from a link-state IGP process and subsequently fail. If the processes run in different memory spaces, RSVP will dump the core, and IGP will continue running with a faulty state. This situation not only hampers troubleshooting, but also potentially brings more damage to the system because the state remains inconsistent.

The issue of proper functional separation also has implications for software engineering managers. It is a common practice to organize development groups according to code structure, and interprocess software defects can become difficult to troubleshoot because of organizational boundaries. Improper code structure can easily translate into a TAC nightmare, where a defect is regularly seen in the customer network, but cannot be reliably reproduced in the lab or even assigned to the right software engineering group.

In Junos OS, the balance between the amount of restartable code and the core dump is tuned to improve troubleshooting and ensure quick problem resolution. Junos OS is intended to be a robust operating system and to deliver the maximum amount of information to engineering should an error occur. This design helps ensure that most software defects resulting in code restarts are resolved within a short time period, often as soon as the core file is delivered.

Quality and Reliability
System integrity is vital, and numerous engineering processes are devoted to ensuring it. The following section touches on the practice of quality software products design.

System Integrity
 If you were curious enough to read this paper up to this point, you should know that a great deal of work goes into the design of a modern operating system. Constant feature development and infrastructural changes mean that each new release has a significant amount of new code.
Now you might ask if the active development process can negatively affect system stability.
With any legacy software design process, the answer would be definite: Yes.

The phenomenon known to programmers as “feature bloating” is generally responsible for degrading code structure and clarity over time. As new code and bug fixes are introduced, the original design goals are lost, testing becomes too expensive, and the release process produces more and more “toxic builds” or otherwise unusable software with major problems.

This issue was recognized very early in the Junos OS development planning stage.

Back in 1996, automated system tests were not widely used, and most router vendors crafted their release methodology based on the number of changes they expected to make in the code. Typically, every new software release would come in mainstream and technology versions, with the former being a primary target for bug fixes, and the latter receiving new features. Defects were caught mainly in production networks after attempts to deploy new software, which resulted in a high number of bug fixes and occasional release deferrals.

To satisfy the needs of customers looking for a stable operational environment, “general deployment” status was used to mark safe-harbor software trains. It was typically awarded to mainstream code branches after they had run for a long enough time in early adopters’ networks.

As a general rule, customers had to choose between features and stability. Technology and early deployment releases were notoriously problematic and full of errors, and the network upgrade process was a trial-and-error operation in search for the code train with a “right” combination of features and bugs.

This approach allowed router vendors to avoid building extensive test organizations, but generally led to low overall product quality. General deployment software trains lingered for years with almost no new features, while technology builds could barely be deployed in production because of reliability problems. Multiple attempts to find the balance between the two made the situation even worse due to introduction of even more software trains with different stability and feature levels.

This practice was identified as improper in the fledgling Junos OS design process. Instead, a state-of-the-art test process and pioneering release methodology were born.

Each Junos OS build is gated by a full regression run that is fully automated and executes for several days on hundreds of test systems simulating thousands of test cases. These test cases check for feature functionality, scaling limits, previously known defects and resilience to negative input (such as faulty routing protocol neighbors). If a failure occurs in a critical test, the final product will not be shipped until the problem is fixed. This process allows Junos OS releases to occur on a predictable, periodic basis. In fact, many customers trust Junos OS to the point that they run the very first build of each version in production. Still, every Junos OS version is entitled to the so-called regression run (if requested by customers). A regressed release is a fully tested original build with all latest bug fixes applied.

The Junos OS shipping process is based on several guiding principles:

• Every Junos OS release is gated by a systems test, and no releases with service-affecting issues are cleared for shipment.
 • Regressed (maintenance) releases, by rule, deliver no new features. For example, no features were introduced between Junos OS 8.5R1 and 8.5R2.
 • As a general rule, feature development happens only at the head of the Junos OS train. Experimental (engineering) branches may exist, but they are not intended for production.
 • No feature backports are allowed (that is, features developed for rev 9.2 are not retrofitted into rev 8.5)
 • No special or customer-specific builds are allowed. This restriction means Junos OS never receives
 modifications that are not applicable to the main code base or cannot pass the system test. Every change and feature request is carefully evaluated according to its value and impact worldwide; the collective expertise of all Juniper Networks customers benefits every Junos OS product.

This release process ensures the exceptional product quality customers have come to expect from Juniper over the years. Although initially met with reluctance by some customers accustomed to the randomly spaced, untested and special builds produced by other vendors, our release policy ensures that no production system receives unproven software. Customers have come to appreciate the stability in OS releases that Juniper’s approach provides.

With its controlled release paradigm, Juniper has set new standards for the entire networking industry, The same approach was used later by many other design organizations.

However, the Junos OS design and build structure remains largely unmatched.
 Unlike competitors’ build processes, our build process occurs simultaneously for all Juniper Networks platforms and uses the same software repository for all products. Each code module has exactly one implementation, in both shared (common) and private (platform-specific) cases. Platform-specific and shared features are merged during the build in a well-controlled and modular fashion, thus providing a continuous array of functionality, quality and experience across all Junos OS routing, switching and security products.

Release Process Summary
 Even the best intentions for any software development are inadequate unless they can prove themselves through meaningful and repeatable results. At Juniper, we firmly believe in a strong link between software quality and release discipline, which is why we have developed criteria for meeting—or failing—our own targets.

Here is a set of metrics for judging the quality of release discipline:

• Documented design process: The Juniper Networks software design process has met the stringent TL9000 certifications requirements.

 • Release schedule: Junos OS releases have been predictable and have generally occurred every three months. An inconsistent, unpredictable or repeatedly slipping release process generally indicates problems in a software organization.

 • Code branching: This is a trend where a single source tree branches out to support either multiple platforms or alternative builds on the same platform with unique software features and release schedules. Branching degrades system integrity and quality because the same functionality (for example, routing) is being independently maintained and developed in different software trains. Branching is often related to poor modularity and can also be linked to poor code quality. In an attempt to satisfy a product schedule and customer requirements, software engineers use branching to avoid features (and related defects) that are not critical to their main target or customer. As a result, the field ends up with several implementations of the same functionality on similar or even identical hardware platforms. Although Junos OS powers many platforms with vastly different capabilities, it is always built from one source tree with core and platform-specific sections. The interface between the two parts is highly modular and well documented, with no overlap in functionality. There is no branching in Junos OS code.

 • Code patching: To speed defect resolution, some vendors provide code patching or point bug-fix capability, so that selected defects can be patched on a running operating system. Although technically very easy to do, code patching significantly degrades production software with uncontrolled and unregressed code infusions. Production systems with code patches become unique in their software state, which makes them expensive to control and maintain. After some early experiments with code patching, Junos OS ceased this process in favor of a more comprehensive and coherent in-service software upgrade (ISSU) and nonstop routing implementation.

 • Customer-specific builds: The use of custom builds is typically the result of failures in a software design methodology and constitutes a form of code branching. If a feature or specific bug fix is of interest to a particular customer, it should be ported to the main development tree instead of accommodated through a separate build. Code branching almost inevitably has major implications for a product such as insufficient test coverage, feature inconsistency and delays. Junos OS is not delivered in customer-specific build forms.

 • Features in minor (regressed) releases: Under Juniper’s release methodology, which has been adopted by many other companies, minor software releases are regressed builds that almost exclusively contain bug fixes. Sometimes the bug fix may also enable functionality that existed but was not made public in the original feature release. However, this should not be a common case. If a vendor consistently delivers new functionality along with bug fixes, this negatively affects the entire release process and methodology because subsequent regressed releases may have new caveats based on the new feature code they have received.
Final Product Quality and Stability

Good code quality in a network operating system means that the OS runs and delivers functionality without problems and caveats—that is, it provides revenue-generating functionality right out of the box with no supervision. Customers often measure software quality by the number of defects they experience in production per month or per year. In the most severe cases, they also record the downtime associated with software defects.

Generally, all software problems experienced by a router can be divided into three major categories:

• Regression defects are those introduced by the new code; a regression defect indicates that something is broken that was working before.
 • Existing software defects are those previously present in the code that were either unnoticed or (up to a certain point) harmless until they significantly affected router operation.
 • New feature fallouts are caveats in new code.
 Juniper’s software release methodology was created to greatly reduce the number of software defects of all types, providing the foundation for the high quality of Junos OS. Regression defects are mostly caught very early in their lifetime at the forefront of the code development.

Existing software defects represent a more challenging case. JTAC personnel, SE community or customers can report them.

Some defects are, in fact, uncovered years after the original design. The verity that they were not found by the system test or by customers typically means that they are not severe or that they occur in rare circumstances, thus mitigating their possible impact. For instance, the wrong integer type (signed versus unsigned) may affect a 32-bit counter only when it crosses the 2G boundary. Years of uptime may be needed to reveal this defect, and most customers will never see it.

In any case, once a new defect class is found, it is scripted and added to the systest library of test cases. This guarantees that the same defect will not leak to the field again, as it will be filtered out early in the build process. This systest library, along with the Junos OS code itself, is among the “crown jewels” of Juniper intellectual property in the area of networking.

As a result, although any significant feature may take several years of development, Juniper has an excellent track record for making sure things work right at the very first release, a record that is unmatched in the networking industry.

Designing a modern operating system is a difficult task that challenges developers with complex problems and choices. Any specific feature implementation is rarely perfect and often strikes a subtle balance among a broad range of reliability, performance and scaling metrics.

This balance is something that Junos OS developers work hard to deliver every day.
 The best way to appreciate Junos OS features and quality is to start using Junos OS in production, alongside any other product in a similar deployment scenario. At Juniper Networks, we go beyond what others consider the norm to ensure that our software leads the industry in performance, resilience and reliability.

What Makes Junos OS Different

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Static Routes with Fast Failure Detection

How do we could protect against blackholing traffic in a network that was only configured with static routes?

You know those pesky problems that arise when two routers are connected on opposite ends of an Ethernet Switch or wan transport gear. A failure on one side of the link leaves the link up on the other side. Fiber cuts, clumsy engineers, failed equipment all can cause a static route blackhole. So how do we protect against this type of failure? That is a very good question and the answer is by using BFD (Bidirectional forwarding detection)

The Configs

Router 3

jparks@J2350-1-R3# show routing-options
static {
    route {
        bfd-liveness-detection {
            minimum-interval 300;
            multiplier 3;
autonomous-system 65006;

Router 4

jparks@J2350-2-R4# show routing-options
static {
    route {
        bfd-liveness-detection {
            minimum-interval 300;
            multiplier 3;
autonomous-system 65116;


If you need a way to prevent static routes from blackholing traffic in your network.  BFD will be your best answer. It is configurable to detect failure in milliseconds and can be applied on just about any protocol used in the network.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Cisco Corporate Facts


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 2
• Computer scientists, Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner, from Stanford University, found Cisco Systems. The company is named for San Francisco, gateway to the Pacific Rim.

• Beginning to experiment with connecting detached networks, Bosack and Lerner run network cables between two different buildings on the Stanford campus, connecting them first with bridges, and then routers.

• Bosack’s and Learner’s vision is to enable disparate networks to talk with each other and share information reliability. But in order for the networks to be truly interconnected, a technology has to be invented that can deal with the disparate local area protocols. With that idea in mind, the multi-protocol router is born.

Internet Facts:

• The Domain Name System (DNS) is introduced. Moderated newsgroups are introduced on USENET.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 2

• Company headquarters moves to Atherton, California.
• First corporate logo is developed.

Cisco Innovations:

• First system, the Massbus-Ethernet Interface Subsystem (MEIS), is shipped.

Internet Facts:

• The first .com and .edu domains are assigned.
• There are 1,961 Internet hosts. (Oct 85)

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 4

• Cisco Systems hires its first employee.

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco gets involved with the introduction of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IETF is an international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution and operation of Internet architecture.

• Cisco forever changes the networking communications industry and the Internet by launching its first routing innovation, the AGS multi-protocol router.
Internet Facts:

• The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is designed to enhance USENET news performance over TCP/IP.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 9

• Cisco receives funding from venture capital firm Sequoia Capital.
• First company mug released, promoting Cisco products.

Internet Facts:

• The industry gains momentum and credibility with the establishment of the first TCP/IP Interoperability conference in March 1987, held in Monterey, California, establishing an official forum for vendors to test the compatibility of their products. The name of the conference changes to INTEROP the following year.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 29

• John Morgridge joins Cisco as President and CEO.
• Employees celebrate at first company picnic.
• Cisco launches a user newsletter called The Packet.

Internet Facts:

• The NSFNet, precursor to the Internet, upgrades its backbone from 56Kbps to 1.5 Mbps.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 111
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $27 million

• With only three products and 111 employees for FY89, Cisco reports revenues of $27 million.
Internet Facts:

• The first gateways between private e-mail carriers and the Internet are established. CompuServe is connected through Ohio State University, MCI through the Corporation for National Research Initiatives.

• There are 80,000 Internet hosts.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 251
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $69 million

• Cisco goes public on February 16, 1990, listed as “CSCO” on the NASDAQ. Cisco celebrates the public offering with a market capitalization of $224 million.
• Cisco launches its Networkers Users Symposiums.

Internet Facts:

• The ARPANET is decommissioned, leaving behind a vast network of networks called the Internet.
• The World ( launches online services, becoming the first commercial service provider of Internet dial-up access.
• Headlines are made at the INTEROP trade show when John Romkey connects a kitchen appliance to the Internet.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 503
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $183 million

• Cisco opens offices in Uxbridge, London (Stockley Park and London City), and Courtabeof, France.
• John Chambers joins Cisco as senior vice president, Worldwide Sales and Operations.
• First stock split. (Mar 91)
• Cisco opens offices in Menlo Park, California. (Jun 91)
• Market capitalization reaches $1 billion. (Aug 91)

Internet Facts:

• The National Science Foundation (NSF) lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the NSFNET backbone, clearing the way for electronic commerce. NSFNET also built the first peering point, and upgraded from T1 to T3 (1.5 Mbps to 45 Mbps).
• Three software tools that started opening the Internet to the casual and business user: WAIS, Gopher, and PGP, to provide browsing, file transfer, and file security across the Internet. No one knew at the time that it would quickly become a mainstay of business and public communication.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 875
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $381 million

• Cisco opens offices in Toronto, Canada and Tokyo, Japan.
• The predecessor to, Cisco Information Online, a bulletin board and FTP download site designed to provide known bug and technical information to its customers and partners, is launched.

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco earns its first patent, No. 5,088,032, for its method and apparatus for routing communications among computer networks (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). The computer networks are interconnected with a series of gateway circuits. Each gateway identifies all destination computers to which it is connected and identifies the path or paths to each destination computer. (Feb 92)
• Cisco Communication Server family introduced. (May 92)
• Cisco 3000 low-end router platform launched. (Aug 92)
• CiscoWorks Router-Management Software introduced. (Sept 92)
• Cisco unveils Cisco 4000 series—new modular router family for regional and branch offices. (Sept 92)


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 1,459
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $714 million

• Cisco opens new offices in Brussels, Belgium; Mexico City, Mexico; Hong Kong.
• Vice President Albert Gore awarded Cisco Circle Award. (Jun 93)
• Cisco introduces Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) program. (Sep 93)
Cisco acquisitions:
• Cisco makes its first acquisition: Crescendo Communications and its 100-Mbps Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI) technology. (Sep 93)
• With the acquisition of Crescendo, Mario Mazzola joins the company. (Sep 93)

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco introduces the high-end Multiprotocol 7000 Router Platform. (Jan 93)
• Cisco 2000 remote access router platform introduced to extends the enterprise internetwork to remote sites. (Jun 93)
• Cisco ships 100,000th router. (Aug 93)
• Cisco earns patent number 5,274,631 for its Computer Network Switching System. (Dec 93)

Internet Facts:

• The White House and the United Nations launch websites.
• Mosaic, the first graphics-based Web browser becomes available.
• Traffic on the Internet expands at a 341,634 percent growth rate.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 2,269
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $1.3 billion
Patents filed: 6

• First building opens at the new corporate headquarters site on Tasman Drive in San Jose, California.
• Cisco opens offices in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Austin, Texas, and Mexico City, Mexico.
• Cisco Connection Online, the Cisco website is officially launched at Networkers ‘94 conference in Chicago. By year’s end, 10,000 users are registered. (Jun 94)
• Cisco becomes the first major supplier of Multiprotocol internetworking products to be awarded ISO 9001 certification—an internationally recognized endorsement for quality management and quality assurance. (Jan 94)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Newport Systems Solutions, providing dial access system solutions. (Jul 94)
• Kalpana, Inc., introducing innovation in LAN switching technology. (Oct 94)
• LightStream Corp., a campus ATM switching play.

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco earns patent number 5,280,500 for Method and Apparatus for Multilevel encoding for Local Area Networks. (Jan 94)
• Cisco unveils CiscoFusion—a new internetworking architecture designed to blend routing, ATM, and LAN switching. (Feb 94)
• Catalyst Switch introduced as the first intelligent switch for client/server workgroups; First new product resulting from Crescendo acquisition. (Feb 94)
• Cisco ships first ATM Router Interface (Feb 94) and ATM Switch. (Sept 94)
• Cisco launches five new product lines to its family of remote access internetworking devices to help satellite offices, telecommuters and mobile professionals access corporate data networks. (Sept. 94)

Internet Facts:

• The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to 155 Mbps as traffic passes 10 trillion bytes per month.
• The first cyber-bank opens for business online. (Jun 94)
• Pizza Hut begins taking orders over the Internet. (Nov 94)


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 3,827
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $2.2 billion
Patents filed: 13
Patents issued: 11

• Cisco opens offices in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
• John Chambers appointed CEO. (Jan 95)
• Larry Carter appointed CFO. (Jan 95)
• John Morgridge appointed Chairman of the Board. (Jan 95)
• First business units created. (Jun 95)
• Ed Kozel named CTO. (Jun 95)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Combinet, Inc., a provider of remote access solutions. (Aug 95)
• Internet Junction, Inc., a developer of Internet gateway software that connects desktop users with the Internet. (Sep 95)
• Grand Junction, Inc., the company that invented Fast Ethernet technology. (Sep 95)
• Network Translation, Inc., a provider of address translation/firewall products.

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco introduces the Catalyst 5000 series, the first multi-layer modular that brings switching, routing and virtual LAN capabilities together. (Mar 95)
• 100,000th Cisco 2500 Remote Access shipped. (Mar 95)
• Cisco launches the Cisco 7500 Series, the first multi-gigabit backplane router from Cisco, and the first router to have a Packet-over-SONET interface – a revolution in simplifying how Internet and IP traffic are carried over long distances. (Aug 95)
• Introduction of the Cisco 750 Series of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) router solutions. (Nov 95)
• Cisco earns a patent in IP technology, No. 5,473,599, for a system and protocol that provides for routing data packets from a host on a LAN through a virtual address belonging to a group of routers. A standby router, also from the group of routers, backs up the active router so that if the active router becomes inoperative, the standby router automatically begins emulating the virtual router. (Dec 95)

Internet Facts:

• HTTP (Web) packets surpass FTP traffic as the largest-volume Internet protocol.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 8,259
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $4.1 billion
Patents filed: 43
Patents issued: 67

• Cisco opens offices in Beijing, China and Amsterdam, Netherlands.
• Cisco enters the service provider market. (Jan 96)
• Cisco launches first Chinese language customer support website. (Aug 96)

Cisco acquisitions:

• TGV Software, Inc., a provider of security products. (Jan 96)
• Stratacom, Inc., the “fast-packet” company which supports a line of frame relay and ATM switches. (Apr 96)
• Telebit Corp’s MICA Technologies, universal access/remote access servers. (Jul 96)
• Nashoba Networks, Inc., a Token Ring company. (Aug 96)
• Granite Systems for Gigabit Ethernet Switching and Stratacom Networks, a WAN Switching innovator. (Sep 96)
• Netsys Technologies, Inc., a provider of network management and performance analysis software. (Oct 96)
• Metaplex, Inc., provider of SNA solutions. (Dec 96)

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco Fellow, Fred Baker appointed chair of IETF—served as chair through 2001.
• Cisco introduces first universal access server family (Jan 96)
• Cisco enters the service provider market with the development and release of the AS5200 for dial-up modem access to the Internet. (Jan 96)
• Cisco earns patent number 5,519,704 for Reliable Transport Protocol for Inter-network Routing. (May 96)
• Cisco introduces 7200 series routers to extend high-end capabilities to wider range of network environments. (Jun 96)
• Cisco surpasses one million mark in access product shipments. (Aug 96)
• Cisco introduces Tag Switching technology—the precursor to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). (Sep 96)

Internet Facts:

• The Telecommunications Act of 1996 is passed, opening U.S. local and long distance markets to competition.
• There are 14,352,000 Internet hosts and 100,000 websites.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 10,728
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $6.5 billion
Patents filed: 105
Patents issued: 34
Networking Academy locations: 64 at launch in October

• Cisco reorganizes, aligning its products and solutions into three customer segments: enterprise, small/medium business, and service provider. (Apr 97)
• Cisco makes its first appearance in the Fortune 500 at number 332.
• Cisco launches Networking Academy program for high school and college students to learn how to design, install, and maintain computer networks, and the Cisco Powered Network program for service providers offering end-to-end, high quality network services based on Cisco equipment. (Oct 97)
• Cisco Foundation established.
• Employee number 10,000 is hired. (Feb 97)
• Cisco Powered Network Program launched.

Cisco acquisitions:

• Telesend, small business DSL products. (Feb 97)
• Skystone Systems Corp., high-speed SONET/SDH technology. (Jun 97)
• Global Internet Software Group, Internet/firewall provider. (Jun 97)
• Ardent Communications, multiservice access. (Jun 97)
• Dagaz, DSL products. (Jun 97)
• Lightspeed International, Inc., voice products translation software. (Dec 97)

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco announces industry’s first enterprise-wide security initiative. (Feb 24)

• Cisco and Intel demonstrate Internet calls through a corporate firewall. (Mar 97)

• Cisco enters the Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) market. (Mar 97)

• Cisco earns patent number 5,617,417 for Asynchronous Transfer Mode Communication in Inverse Multiplexing over Multiple Communication Links. (Apr 97)

• Cisco becomes an initial corporate partner in the Internet2 project. (Apr 97)

• Cisco 12000 Gigabit Switch Router (GSR) and Cisco Cache Engine is launched helping to enable service providers and carrier customers the first completely distributed, modular router with the ability to seamlessly scale – over 100 times the original capacity to date – without being taken out of the network and replaced. (Sep 97)

• Cisco introduces first in a series of products aimed at the voice-over-IP and fax-over-IP markets; Outlines he first phase of voice/video/data integration strategy. (Oct 97)

• Cisco sells the one millionth 2500 series router. Cisco introduces Gigabit Ethernet and Layer 3 routing in switches. (Nov 97)

• Cisco cable data product line launched. (Dec 97)

Internet Facts:

• The World Wide Web Consortium publishes version 4.0 of the HTML language used to create Web pages. This includes multimedia features, UNICODE support, for displaying the world’s various languages, and features that help people with disabilities use the Internet.

• The Internet2 project is announced in the U.S. to develop within two years new Internet services for the research community, such as interactive TV, videoconferencing and remote presence for teaching and research. The research community begins to construct new Internet connections, which initially run at 620 Mbps, increasing to 2.4 Gbps at the beginning of 1999.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 14,623
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $8.5 billion
Patents filed: 260
Patents issued: 60
Networking Academy locations: 580

• Cisco opens government affairs office in Washington, DC. (Apr 98)
• Cisco becomes the first company in history to achieve a market capitalization of $100 billion in just 14 years.
• Judith Estrin named Chief Technology Officer. (Mar 98)
• Vice President Gore and Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin attend Silicon Valley roundtable at Cisco headquarters. (Mar 98)
• Don Listwin named Executive Vice President (Jun 98)
• The first Cisco television ad airs, kicking off the “Are You Ready?” campaign. (Aug 98)
• John Chambers unveils telecommunications vision in China; Chambers meets with President Jiang Zemin (Sept 98)
• John Chambers unveils telecommunications vision in China; Chambers meets with President Jiang Zemin (Sept 98)
• Cisco commitment to Internet2 totals $15 million; Company works with educators and government leaders to develop advanced Internet. (Sept 98)
• U.S. Secretary of State Albright visits Cisco. (Oct 98)
• CEO John Chambers, speaking at a White House meeting on E-commerce, lays out his vision for the Internet Economy. (Nov 98)
• Cisco forms Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) to share networking. infrastructure expertise and its own experiences at deploying Internet-powered solutions. (Dec 98)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Wheelgroup Corp., network security software. (Feb 98)
• Netspeed, Inc., DSL products. (Mar 98)
• Precept Software, Inc., provider of IP/TV. (Mar 98)
• CLASS Data Systems, policy based networking. (May 98)
• Summa Four, Inc., open-standards-based programmable switches. (Jul 98)
• American Internet Corp., IP address management and billing. (Aug 98)
• Clarity Wireless Corp., fixed wireless technology. (Sep 98)
• Selsius Systems, a leading supplier of network PBX systems for high-quality telephony over IP networks. (Oct 98)
• Pipelinks, Inc., integrated SONET/SDH and IP router technology. (Dec 98)

Cisco Innovations:

• Cisco unveils five-phase optical internetworking technology strategy. (Apr 98)
• Catalyst. 8500 family of modular Campus Switch Routers (CSR) announced. (Apr 98)
• Cisco targets carrier class voice market with three-phased packet voice strategy. (Apr 98)
• Cisco earns patent number 5,793,763 for Security System for Network Address Translation Systems. (Aug 98)
• Cisco Systems announces first cable modem for small office, home office and telecommuting environments. (Sept 98)
• Cisco introduces Gigabit Ethernet and Layer 3 routing in switches. (Oct. 98)
• Cisco releases Cisco 800 series for small offices and corporate telecommuters. (Nov 98)
• Cisco ships 1,000th Cisco 12000 gigabit switch router since its release in 1997. (Nov 98)
• 100,000th Cisco 3600 series modular access platform shipped. (Dec 98)

Internet Facts:

• Electronic postal stamps become a reality, enabling U.S. postal stamps to be purchased and downloaded for printing via the Web.
• The World Wide Web Consortium releases the specifications for XML (Extensible Markup Language) version 1.0.
• There are 29,670,000 Internet hosts and 1,834,710 websites.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 20,657
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $12.2 billion
Patents filed: 530
Patents issued: 88
Networking Academy locations: 2,532

• Cisco launches a consumer line of business geared towards small- and medium-sized businesses. (Jan 99)
• Pioneer Awards established; Award recognizes the collaborative efforts of Cisco engineering teams that spearhead the development of innovative products and core technologies.
• New Executive Briefing Center opens at Cisco headquarters in San Jose, CA. (Jan 99)
• Cisco celebrates its 15th anniversary. (Jan 99)
• Fortune magazine recognizes Cisco as one of the top 25 best places to work in America and the 8th most admired company in the world. (Jan 99)
• Market capitalization reaches $300 billion. (Jan 99)
• Cisco Systems announces investment and growth strategy in India; Invest $20 million and expand employment, global development and introduce R&D Center. (Jun 99)
• Cisco helps organize the NetAid ( effort with UNDP; Clinton, Mandela and Blair make first hits on NetAid web site; NetAid becomes the largest syndicated radio broadcast and largest internet broadcast ever. (Oct 99)
• The UNDP Asia Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP) and announce a partnership to bring Internet education to students in developing countries in the Asia Pacific region. (Aug 99)
• Cisco shifts its entire training structure to an e-learning model and significantly changes the way the company educates and trains its employees, channel partners, and customers. (Nov 99)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Sentient Networks, Inc., ATM CES gateway. (Apr 99)
• Fibex Systems., Integrated Access Digital Loop Carrier (IADLC). (Apr 99)
• Geotel Communications, Inc., software for call centers. (Apr 99)
• Amteva Technologies, Inc., IP-based unified communications software. (Apr 99)
• TransMedia Communications, Inc., media gateway product. (Jun 99)
• StratumOne, optical/semiconductor design. (Jun 99)
• Calista, Inc., legacy phone/IP-PBX interoperability products. (Aug 99)
MaxComm Technologies, Inc., DSL broadband voice and data solutions. (Aug 99)
• Cerent Corporation, optical transport technology. (Aug 99)
• Monterey Networks, Inc., optical transport technology. (Aug 99)
• CoCom A/S, European standards-based cable access solutions. (Sep 99)
• WebLine Communications Corp., customer interaction management software. (Sep 99)
• Tasmania Network Systems, network caching software. (Oct 99)
• Aironet Wireless Communications, Inc., developer of high speed wireless LAN products (Nov 99)
• V-Bits, Inc., Digital video systems. (Nov 99)
• Worldwide Data Systems, testing for VoIP. (Dec 99)
• Internet Engineering Group, LLC, software for high-end routing technology. (Dec 99)
• Pirelli Optical Systems, optical/DWDM technology. (Dec 99)

Cisco Innovations:

• 1999 Pioneer Technology Awards: Data-Over-Cable System Interface Specification (DOCSIS); and Voice over IP. (VoIP).
• Cisco outlines comprehensive enterprise VPN strategy and suite of VPN solutions. (Jan 99)
• Cisco introduces the Catalyst 4000 and Catalyst 6000 series of modular Gigabit Chassis Switches. (Jan 99)
• Cisco unveils the Catalyst. 6000 family of intelligent multi-gigabit enterprise switches. (Jan 99)
• Cisco demonstrates a voice over IP link between Taiwan and USA. (Jan 99)
• Cisco engineers create a new technology called Dynamic Packet Transport to provide a more cost effective way to build optical networks. (Feb 99)
• Cisco earns patent number 5,883,893, a for a VoIP technology innovation—a transport layer protocol for a compressed voice, facsimile, and modem data includes a voice packetization sublayer; a voice transport sublayer; and a voice payload segmentation and reassembly sublayer. The voice payload segmentation and reassembly sublayer breaks up user data packets into segments. (Mar 99)
• Cisco Systems Announces Unified Communications Strategy. (Apr 99)
• Cisco outlines comprehensive program for small and growing companies to leverage Internet applications. (Apr 99)
• Cisco 7100 Series of integrated virtual private network (VPN) routers launched. (May 99)
• Cisco announces comprehensive Intranet and Extranet Virtual Private Network solutions for Service Providers. (May 99)
• Cisco introduces next-generation stacking with new Catalyst 3500 Series XL. (May 99)
• Cisco earns a key patent in VoIP technology, No. 5,937,057—for use in a call center having a plurality of agent stations and an audio automatic call distribution system (ACD) for routing an incoming audio call received from a communications network to one of the plurality of agent stations, a system and method that allows the audio ACD to route an audio/video call received into the call center. (Aug 99)
• Company launches mid-market initiative with programs and alliances to serve midsized businesses. (Aug 99)
• Cisco delivers Enterprise architecture for Voice, Video and Integrated Data Networks—AVVID. (Sept 99)
• Cisco earns patent number 5,959,968 for Port Aggregation Protocol. (Sep 99)
• Cisco 7200 Series multifunction router family surpasses the 50,000 unit shipment milestone. (Oct 99)
• Cisco targets Internet video market. (Oct 99)
• Cisco forms partnerships with 10 leading companies to create standards for wireless Internet technology. (Oct 99)
• Cisco Systems announces ground-breaking 12000 Terabit System. (Dec 99)

Internet Facts:

• U.S. State Court rules that domain names are property.
• ICANN announces the five test-bed registrars for the competitive Shared Registry System: AOL, CORE, France Telecom/Oléane, Melbourne IT, and The first registrar to come online is on June 7.


Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 34,613
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $18.9 billion
Patents filed: 751
Patents issued: 150
Networking Academy locations: 4,901

• Cisco opens New England Manufacturing Center. (May 00)
• Cisco expands Richardson, Texas site. (Jun 00)
• Cisco became the world’s most valuable company, in terms of market cap, on March 27, with a high of $82 a share (market cap: $569B), closing at $80.06 (market cap: $555B). (Mar 00)
• Michelangelo Volpi promoted to Chief Strategy Officer. (Apr 00)
• Cisco launches the Internet Quotient (IQ) program, including iQ Magazine and the iQ website, to provide the tools that executives need to lead their company successfully in the Internet Economy. (Jun 00)
• Cisco invests $3.5 million into educational programs in more than half of the world’s Least Developed Countries (LDCs). (July 00)
• Cisco establishes software development centers in Asia and Europe. (July 00)
• Cisco unveils Internet Home. (July 00)
• Chambers outlines ‘Network of Networks’ strategy at Cisco 2001 Worldwide Analyst conference.
• Cisco launches its daily, online news channel: News@Cisco. (Dec 00)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Altiga Networks, Inc., provider of remote access VPN. (Jan 00)
• Compatible Systems, Inc., VPNs for service providers. (Jan 00)
• Growth Networks, Inc., provider of switching fabric for high-end switches and routers. (Feb 00)
• Atlantech Technologies, network element management software. (Mar 00)
• InfoGear Technology, software for managing information appliances. (Mar 00)
• JetCell, Inc., wireless telephony for corporate networks. (Mar 00)
• SightPath, Inc., appliance for content delivery networks. (Mar 00)
• Pentacom, LTD, optical/metro IP technology. (Apr 00)
• Seagull Semiconductor, Ltd., silicon for terabit routing. (Apr 00)
• Arrowpoint Communications, Inc., provider of content switching platforms (hardware/software). (May 00)
• Qeyton Systems, optical, metro DWDM technology. (May 00)
• HyNEX, Ltd., ATM access device. (Jun 00)
• Netiverse, Inc. content acceleration technology. (Jun 00)
• Komodo Technology, Inc., VoIP device (gateway for analog phones). (Jul 00)
• NuSpeed Internet Systems, technology that connects SANs to IP networks.
• IPmobile, Inc., software for mobile wireless Internet (3G networks). (Aug 00)
• IPmobile, Inc., software for mobile wireless Internet (3G networks). (Aug 00)
• Vovida Networks, Inc., VoIP technology. (Sep 00)
• IPCell Technologies, Inc., VoIP technology. (Sep 00)
• CAIS Software Solutions, provider of broadband connectivity for MxU market. (Oct 00)
• Active Voice, unified messaging technology. (Nov 00)
• Radiata, Inc., chipsets for high-speed wireless technology. (Nov 00)
• Exio, provider of wireless technologies for enterprise networks. (Dec 00)

Cisco Innovations:

• 2000 Pioneer Technology Awards: Catalyst 65XX Multilayer Switch; and Toaster: High Speed Packet Processing Engine
• Cisco introduces the Parallel express Forwarding (PXF) Network Processor, revolutionizing the way packet processing is done in hardware. PXF enables multiple million packet per second forwarding rates while allowing customers to continuously upgrade their feature sets without swapping hardware.
• Cisco introduces open platform for Internet Homes (Jan 00)
• Cisco releases Catalyst mid-market LAN switching solution (Jan 00)
• Cisco introduces the Catalyst 4006 and brings in-line power to the mid-market. (Jan 00)
• Cisco 2600/3600 modular access multiservice platforms shipments exceed 500,000 units. (Jan 00)
• With patent number 6,018,650. Cisco earns a key patent in wireless technology for a cellular communication device for a cellular communication network that includes a radio-frequency (RF) transmitter for transmitting an RF signal at an output power level to one or more other devices in the cellular communication network. (Jan 00)
• In VoIP technology, Cisco earns patent number 6,044,081 for a subsystem for communicating a private network-signaling message over a packet network and bridges for communicating a Media Access Control (MAC) layer frame over an isochroous channel and for communicating an isochroous signaling frame over a non-isochronous network. (Mar 00)
• Cisco introduces Wireless LAN solution for small-to-medium businesses and corporate enterprises. (Mar 00)
• Cisco delivers ten new IP telephony products—scaling AVVID from small branch systems up through large enterprises. (Mar 00)
• Cisco announces the Cisco 10000 Edge Services Router (ESR). (Apr 00)
• Cisco engineers develop a method of integrating hardware encryption technology into the Cisco 1700 family of routers by shrinking the technology to fit into a space the size of a PCMCIA card. (Apr 00)
• In wireless technology, Cisco earns patent number 6,049,533 for a network communication system in which access points providing wireless access to the system reroute misrouted information packets in the event the location of a mobile unit has changed. Regardless of whether a host computer or other network device is capable of updating in its position table the changing locations of the mobile units, information packets directed to the mobile units from the host computer or other network device are still properly delivered. (Apr 00)
• Cisco announces the availability of the Cisco Metro 1500 Series Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Dense-Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) platform. (May 00)
• Cisco unveils new Internet Communications Software Group and a five-phase Unified Communications software strategy. (May 00)
• Cisco makes motion picture history with first-Ever Internet transported and digitally screened movie. (Jun 00)
• Cisco earns a key patent in IP technology, No. 6,097,718, for a method and system for maintaining and updating routing information in a packet switching network for a set of quasi-dynamic routes, in which intermittent routing updates are permitted, so that routes are no longer “always static” or “always dynamic,” but may change over time between static and dynamic, and are treated accordingly. (Aug 00)
• Cisco earns patent number 6,115,468 for Power Feed for Ethernet Telephones via Ethernet Link. (Sep 00)
• Cisco announces the industry’s first complete solution for automating the end-to-end DSL flow-through provisioning process. (Sep 00)
• Cisco develops the Catalyst 6000 IDS, also called a “security switch blade.” The product addresses network security switched environments by integrating Intrusion Detection System functions directly into the switch. (Sep 00)
• Cisco Unveils SAFE Blueprint, Extending Cisco AVVID for Secure E-Business. (Sep 00)
• Patent number 6,147,996 is issued to Cisco for a key innovation in IP technology—a pipelined multiple issue architecture for a link layer or protocol layer packet switch, which processes packets independently and asynchronously, but reorders them into their original order, thus preserving the original incoming packet order. (Nov 00)
• Cisco announces ‘Cisco Internet Mobile Office’ for business professionals on the move. (Nov 00)

Internet Facts:

• There are 72,398,092 Internet hosts and 9,950,491 websites.
• IPv6 debuts.
• Internet2 backbone network deploys IPv6.
• ICANN selects new TLDs: .aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, and .pro.


 Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 38,402
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $22.3 billion
Patents filed: 688
Patents issued: 185
Networking Academy locations: 8,000

• Cisco Systems reorganizes, moving from a line of business structure to centralized engineering and marketing organizations. (Aug 01)
Mario Mazzola named Chief Development Officer; James Richardson appointed Chief Marketing Officer. (Aug 01)
• Nobel Foundation selected Cisco as its Internet technology partner to support the Nobel e-Museum as the Foundation celebrates its 100th Anniversary. (Jan 01)
• John Chambers conveys a clear message at Davos: Broadband Internet adoption could double U.S. living standards in 15 years. (Jan 01)
• Cisco Teams with to use the Internet to expose hate and teach tolerance. (Apr 00)
• Cisco launches Internet Business Roadmap tool—a new program to help small-and medium-sized businesses increase their profitability and gain a competitive edge by utilizing the power of E-Business applications. (Sep 01)
• Cisco helps Nobel harness the Internet to connect scientists and students to a Century’s worth of Nobel history. (Oct 01)
• Cisco along with Internet and nonprofit leaders launch “Network for Good” to support local and national charities. (Nov 01)

Cisco acquisitions:

• AuroraNetics, Inc., 10 Gbps silicon for RPRs in metro segment. (Jul 01)
• Allegro Systems, Inc.,VPN acceleration technologies. (Jul 01)

Cisco Innovations:

• 2001 Pioneer Technology Awards: T-CAM Technology; 12400 Internet Router; IP Telecaster; Survivable Remote Site Telephony; Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) standard introduced.
• Cisco introduces Very Short Reach Optics (VSR)—enabling cost-effective scaling of IP networks.
• Cisco earns patent number 6,173,386 for Parallel Processor with Debug Capability. (Jan 01)
• Cisco ships the Cisco 12400 Series router—the most sophisticated and competitive 10G IP/MPLS service delivery infrastructure. (Jan 01)
• Cisco launches new family of Smart integrated access devices—Cisco Smart IAD2400. (Jan 00)
• In VoIP technology, Cisco earns patent number 6,188,760 for a signal state management (SSM) system that avoids both the overhead of maintaining call state and complex signaling in a packet network gateway, while simultaneously providing a more scalable system. (Feb 01)
• Cisco ships the Cisco ONS 15327 SONET Multiservice Platform, a product that offers the ability to deploy on-demand bandwidth in a compact, multi-service solution to the edge of the network. (Mar 01)
• Cisco develops the Cisco SN 5420 Storage Router, which allows users to access storage anywhere on IP network just as easily as they can access storage locally; Outlines storage networking initiative. (Apr 01)
• Cisco announces Phase 1 of IPv6, the first vendor to do so. IPv6 offers expanded IP addresses to accommodate the proliferation of Internet devices; the expansion of the Internet throughout the world; the increasing use of “always on” Internet access; and requirements of emerging Internet applications. (May 01)
• Cisco engineers design and deploy the Cisco ONS 15540 Extended Services Platform, a high-end metro dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical networking system designed for enterprise and service provider networks. (May 01)
• Cisco introduces the Analog Telephone Adaptor—that turns a traditional telephone into one capable of making voice over IP. (May 01)
•  Cisco engineers develop Boomerang Algorithms and the Self-Organizing Distributed Architecture (SODA) Algorithm for enterprise content delivery networks. Together, these innovations increase the speed of downloading information from the Web, which increases end-user satisfaction. (Nov 01)
• Cisco engineers develop first 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) modules for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series switches. The modules extend Ethernet technology from the local area network (LAN) to the metropolitan area network (MAN). (Nov 01)
• Cisco earns patent number 6,314,110 for Method and Apparatus for Distributed Bandwidth Allocation for a Bi-directional Ring Media with Spatial and Local Reuse. (Nov 01)
• Cisco engineers create the Cisco Long-Reach Ethernet (LRE) broadband networking solution—the industry’s first end-to-end product line for delivering 5-15 Mbps performance over existing Category 1/2/3 wiring. (Dec 01)
• Cisco leads development of world’s largest IPv6 research network. (Dec 01)
• Cisco extended its optical networking product portfolio with introduction of Cisco ONS 15808 to deliver data in long-haul optical transport environments and bandwidth enhancements to the Cisco ONS 15540 metro optical platform. (Dec 01)

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 35,670
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $18.9 billion
Patents filed: 695
Patents issued: 240
Networking Academy locations: 10,175

• The Technology Network (TechNet), a national network of CEOs from the nation’s leading technology companies, including Cisco CEO John Chambers, called on the federal government to adopt a goal of 100 megabits per second to 100 million homes and small businesses in the U.S. by the end of the decade. (Jan 02)
• United Negro College Fund receives $1.8 Million grant from Cisco to strengthen technology at member institutions. (Jun 00)
• Cisco helps NATO create ‘virtual silk highway’ for academic and scientific communities in Caucasus and Central Asia. (Jun 00)
• Cisco Fellow Fred Baker named chair of the Internet Society (ISOC). (Aug 02)
• Cisco and UNIFEM, under the patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah, join talents to increase the number of working women in Jordan. (Oct 02)
• Cisco executives outline Intelligent Information Network vision at Cisco 2002 annual worldwide analyst conference. (Dec 02)
• Cisco Systems and launch new nationwide product donation program. (Dec 02)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Hammerhead Networks, IP aggregation high-performance software solutions. (May 02)
• Navarro Networks, ASIC design expertise and components for Ethernet. (May 02)
• AYR Network, Inc., distributed networking services and highly scalable routing software technologies. (Jul 02)
• Andiamo Systems, Inc., which developed the storage industry’s first family of multilayer intelligent storage switches. This acquisition allows Cisco to enter the large, high-growth Fibre Channel Storage Area Networking (SAN) market. (Aug 02)
• Psionic Software, Inc., Software associated with Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) by reducing false alarms by up to 95%. (Oct 02)
Cisco Innovations:
• Cisco extended its leadership in IP routing with several major product introductions in high-end and mid-range routing: 12404 Internet Router, 12000 Series IP Services Engine (ISE), 10720 Internet Router, and significant enhancements to the Cisco 7200, 7300, 7400, 7500 and 7600 series of industry-leading midrange routers.
• Cisco gained momentum in the storage networking market with customer deployments of the industry’s first commercially available iSCSI platform, the Cisco SN 5420 Storage Router.
• Cisco forms Carrier Systems Group, focusing on systems designed specifically for needs of carriers. Formation of group furthers Cisco’s service provider strategy to provide carrier-class solutions that enable service providers to offer new revenue-generating services and increase profitability. (Feb 02)
• Cisco introduced its next-generation wireless LAN products. The Cisco Aironet® 1200 Series is the industry’s first dual radio wireless LAN access point that supports both IEEE 802.11b and the 5-GHz IEEE 802.11a radios. (Apr 02)
• Cisco introduced 14 new access routers designed to extend network intelligence to the enterprise branch office and remote worker. (Apr 02)
• Cisco introduced Globally Resilient IP – a new set of features in Cisco IOS® Software that enables network-wide resilience to ensure maximum network uptime and protect against network failures. (May 02)
• Cisco introduces industry’s first single port 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) router line card designed to scale service provider Ethernet infrastructure. (Jun 02)
• Cisco achieves a cable-industry milestone by shipping its 250,000th upstream cable modem termination system (CMTS) port. (Jun 02)
• Cisco develops and ships the Catalyst 6500 Content Switching Module, which allows intelligent scaling of websites to a very large number of servers. (Jul 02)
• Cisco reached a major milestone by shipping its one millionth IP telephone and continues to see acceptance of voice over IP technologies with more than 8 million voice lines shipped worldwide. (Aug 02)
• Cisco announced ONS 15600
Multi Service Switching Platform (MSSP) that builds on Cisco’s commitment to help carriers evolve from a circuit switch environment to a packet-based infrastructure for greater long-term revenue potential. (Sep 02)
• Cisco announces the Cisco MDS 9000 Series, a comprehensive family of multilayer intelligent storage switches that delivers a number of storage networking innovations to customers. (Aug 02)
• Cisco delivered new innovations to its leading Catalyst 4000 switching platform, which included in-house designed ASICs and a Layer 3 switching module for added intelligence and control of data, voice and video networks. (Sep 02)
• Cisco introduced new security hardware and software products including gigabit firewall technology, intrusion detection systems and enhancements to Cisco’s leading virtual private networking (VPN) technology such as greater security for remote access users. (Nov 02)
• Cisco celebrates the fifth anniversary of the first network deployment of the Cisco 12000 Series router. (Nov 02)
• Cisco and SURFnet, a Dutch computer network for higher education and research, showcase the industry’s first transatlantic transmission of High Definition Television (HDTV) over Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). (Nov 02)

Internet Facts:

• There are 147,344,723 Internet hosts and 36,689,008 websites.

Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 34,466
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $18.9 billion
Patents filed: 747
Patents issued: 327
Networking Academy locations: 10,497

• Cisco opens a 430,000 square foot New England campus in Boxborough, Massachusetts. (Jun 03)
• Cisco entered home networking market with its acquisition of The Linksys Group. (Jan 03)
• Dennis Powell named Cisco CFO. (May 03)
• Cisco receives Presidential Award for Corporate Leadership. (Sept 03)
• International Telecommunication Union and Cisco join forces to bring networking skills to Governments in developing countries and economies in transition. (Oct 03)
• Cisco Networking Academy celebrates its five year anniversary (Oct 03); 1000th Cisco Networking Academy opens in Asia Pacific region. (Dec 03)
• Cisco’s CCIE certification program celebrates 10 years of excellence. (Nov 03)
Cisco acquisitions:
• Okena, Inc., software providing threat protection for desktop and server computing systems. (Jan 03)
• SignalWorks, Inc., software that delivers high-performance audio capabilities for IP telephony systems. (Mar 03)
• Linksys Group, enabling Cisco to enter the high-growth consumer/SOHO networking market. (Jun 03)
• Latitude Communications, Inc., a leading provider of enterprise conferencing products. (Nov 03)

Cisco Innovations:

• In the Service Provider segment, Cisco announced alliances with SBC Communications, AT&T, and BellSouth to help service providers deliver data services to enterprise customers. In addition, Cisco announced an agreement with Lucent Technologies to resell select Cisco products as part of its mobile networking solution for the mobile service provider market.
• In fixed switching, Cisco introduced significant innovations to the stackable market via the Catalyst 3750 Series with Cisco StackWise technology (Apr 03), and the Cisco Catalyst 3550-24 PWR Intelligent Ethernet Switch, which provides a lower total cost of ownership for deployments that incorporate Cisco IP phones and/or Cisco Aironet wireless LAN Access Points. (Jan 03).
• Cisco introduced the compact Cisco 7301 Series router, designed as the industry’s highest-performing single-rack-unit router built for customer-edge applications. (Apr 03)
• Cisco introduces the Wireless IP Phone 7920 which is based on WiFi or 802.11b wireless technology and enables employees in mobile work environments, such as hospitals, warehouses and retail stores, to stay connected while roaming freely throughout their corporate campus. (Apr 03)
• Cisco introduces the Catalyst 3750, and third generation switching functionality for its Catalyst 6500, extending platform performance to 720Gbps and 400Mpps. (Apr 03)
• Cisco unveiled an array of new intrusion protection, security management, and firewall extensions, along with 14 security solutions and services that will help customers make their networked business-critical resources more resilient and operationally efficient. (May 03)
• Cisco introduced customized Ethernet switches: the
• Cisco Catalyst 2955 Ethernet switch for rugged environments such as manufacturing floors (Mar 03), and the Cisco Catalyst 2940 Ethernet switch for classrooms. (Jun 03)
• Cisco establishes a networked solutions lab in Singapore. (Jul 03)
• Cisco attains a major milestone by shipping its 2 millionth Internet Protocol (IP) telephone. (Jul 03)
• In the core, modular switching business, Cisco announced next generation intelligent network capabilities for the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series multilayer switch (Mar 03) and introduced a new line of midrange intelligent switches, the Catalyst 4500 Series. (Sept 03)
• In routing, Cisco more than doubled the processing power of its Cisco 7200 Series routers, bringing million-packets-per-second (mpps) processing to one of the industry’s most widely deployed mid-range routers via the new Cisco 7200 Series Network Processing Engine (NPE-G1). (Sept 03)
• Cisco unveils its color IP telephone (Sep 03)
• At ITU Telecom 2003 in Geneva, Switzerland, Cisco announced a series of new customer deployments and technology advancements that further its commitment to the telecommunications service provider market. (Oct 03)


 Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 34,371
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $22.0 billion
Patents filed: 825
Patents issued: 447
Networking Academy locations: 10,275

• Charles Giancarlo named Chief Technology Officer. (Aug 04)
• Cisco Systems Foundation awarded $770 Thousand in grants to San Francisco bay area non-profits. (Aug 04)
• Cisco invested US $32 Million in Chinese research and development center. (Sept 04)
• Cisco pledged US $50 Million financing to help Korean small and medium-sized businesses adopt networking technologies. (Sept 04)
• Cisco joined with 25 other vendors and users to pledge to work together to fight spam. (Nov 04)
• Cisco celebrated 20 years of innovation by giving back 20 years of volunteer service to the community. (Dec 04)
• Cisco bolstered its partner programs by:
• Launching a partner technical support services portfolio in twelve new countries. (May 04)
• Introducing new global technical support services programs. (Jun 04)
• Unveiling partner specializations to address customer demand for storage networking solutions (June 04) and launches program in commercial market. (July 04)

Cisco acquisitions:

• Twingo Systems, Inc. a provider of desktop security solutions for Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (Mar 04)
• Riverhead Networks, Inc. a developer of security technology that protects against Distributed Denial of Service (“DDoS”) attacks and other security threats (Mar 04)
• Procket Network, Inc. a developer of concurrent services routers (Jun 04)
• Actona Technologies, Inc. a provider of wide-area file services software that facilitates data management across geographically distributed offices (Jun 04)
• Parc Technologies, Ltd. a developer of traffic engineering (TE) solutions and software for routing optimization (Jul 04)
• P-Cube Inc. a leader in programmable IP Service Control platforms for wireline network operators (Aug 04)
• NetSolve, Inc. a provider of remote network and IT infrastructure management services (Sept 04)
• dynamicsoft Inc. a leader in Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) technology (Sept 04)
• Perfigo, Inc. a developer of access control solutions that provide endpoint policy analysis, compliance, and access enforcement capabilities (Oct 04)
• Jahi Networks, Inc. a provider of network management appliances (Nov 04)
• BCN Systems, Inc. a developer of networking software architecture for routing applications (Dec 04)
Cisco Innovations:
• Cisco unveiled one of the company’s most significant routing innovations of the decade, the Cisco Carrier Routing System (CRS-1). (May 04) which was also recognized in the Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s highest capacity Internet router. (Jul 04)
• In LAN switching, Cisco announced new products and capabilities for its Catalyst Intelligent Switching portfolio. (Mar 04) and introduced more than 20 new Cisco Catalyst Switch offerings. (Nov 04)
• In Metro Ethernet Switching, Cisco announced significant product additions and enhancements to its portfolio, aimed at helping service providers deliver scaleable and profitable metro Ethernet services to their enterprise business customers. (Jan 04)
• Cisco shipped its 4 millionth IP telephone to Liz Claiborne, Inc. (Nov 04)
• Ciscos added Video Telephony to its IP communications solutions with the launch of a Video Telephony (VT) Advantage solution which allows users to place or receive instant face-to-face video calls. (Feb 04)
• Cisco also introduced a new color IP Phone, which includes a high resolution touch screen and additional features. (July 04)
• In security, Cisco expanded its security systems product portfolio by adding to its threat defense and secure connectivity products and services for networked businesses. (Mar 04)
• Cisco teamed with Microsoft to help customers address security threats (Oct 04) and announced plans with IBM to integrate technologies and products to protect customers from worms and viruses. (Feb 04)
• Cisco and IBM announced integrated solutions designed to reduce the damage and disruption that viruses, worms and other security vulnerabilities can cause to networks and minimize the impact they have on day-to-day business operations. (Oct 04)
• In the wireless space, Cisco set a new standard for enterprise-class wireless LANs with the introduction of the Wireless LAN Services Module for the Cisco Catalyst® 6500 Series. (May 04)
• In storage area networking, Cisco enhanced Cisco ONS 15530 Metro DWDM Platform with high-density storage and multiprotocol service aggregation capabilities (Nov 04) and delivered SAN Extension, SAN Security Innovations with Cisco MDS 9000 SAN-OS 2.0. (Sept 04)
• In the optical market, Cisco announced new and enhanced edge, metro and core multiservice optical solutions. (Nov 04)
• Linksys announced groundbreaking new products and company relationships for home networking and consumer VoIP. (Sept. 2004)
• In the consumer/home networking segment, Linksys announced several new home entertainment products, including:
• Wireless-B Media Link for Music System which allows users to listen to digital music and internet radio stations on their living room stereos (May 04)
• Wireless-G Internet Video Camera (Sept 04)
• Linksys also launched a Cisco Trade-Up program to help small businesses protect their investment in networking technology. (Sept 04)
• In the Service Provider segment, Ericsson and Cisco formed a strategic alliance to offer joint solutions for the wireline communications market (Apr 04) and Fujitsu and Cisco formed a strategic alliance to jointly develop next generation high-end routers. (Dec 04)
Internet Facts:
• The Internet marked its 35th anniversary (Oct 04)
• Users accessing the Internet topped 6.3 billion people according to
Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year 2005: 38,413
Revenue for Fiscal Year 2005: $24.8 billion
Patents Filed: 1218
Patents Issued: 469
Networking Academy Locations: 10,000+

• Cisco and EMC Corporation announces intention to provide customers with an end-to-end storage consolidation solution for remote-office data. (Jan. 05).
• Cisco announced the CiscoSecureTM Wireless Solution for K-12, bringing rich educational content and resources to students and teachers, while providing greater mobility, convenience and optimized security. (March 05)
• Cisco Systems and Cisco Systems Capital announced it will add $750 million in short-term growth capital to expand global credit capacity for channel partners. (April 05)
• Cisco announced the SMB Support Assistant service offering, a tailored support service for small and medium businesses. (April 05)
• Cisco employees “virtually” opened The NASDAQ Stock Market from the company’s San Jose, Calif. headquarters, marking the first time in NASDAQ history the ringing of the celebratory bell has occurred outside of New York. (Aug. 05).
• Cisco announced a $40 million commitment in a multi-phase, three-year education “21S Initiative” in the Gulf Coast region for reconstructing and improving schools that will begin in Mississippi and can be replicated around the country. (Oct. 05)
• Cisco announced its investment initiative for India totaling US $1.1 billion. This announcement highlights the growing importance of the Indian market in the global economy. (Oct. 05)
• Cisco will spend approximately US $50 million to build a new one-million square-foot campus in Bangalore that will support staff from Cisco’s R&D, IT, Sales and Customer Support teams to be completed by June 2007. (Oct. 05)
• Synergy Research ranked Cisco as the number one supplier in the global enterprise voice market, based on revenue for the third calendar quarter of 2005. (Nov. 05)
• Cisco appointed Thomas Lam as President, China Operations. Mr. Lam will be based in Beijing and report to Owen Chan, President, Asia Pacific Operations, Cisco Systems, Inc. (Nov. 05)


• Cisco announced it has completed the acquisition of privately held Airespace, Inc., of San Jose, Calif. Airespace, a provider of WLAN systems, provides a secure, flexible, and cost effective solution for enterprises and commercial customers. (March 05).
• Cisco announced an agreement to acquire privately-held Sipura Technology, Inc., a leader in consumer VoIP technology. This represents Cisco’s first acquisition for its Linksys division. (April 05)
• Cisco announced a definitive agreement to acquire privately-held Topspin Communications, Inc. of Mountain View, Calif., a leading provider of server fabric switches. (April 05)
• Cisco announced a deal to acquire privately-held FineGround Networks, Inc. of Campbell, Calif., a provider of network appliances. (May 05). The acquisition completed in June.
• Cisco also completed the acquisitions of M. I. Secure Corp., of San Jose, Calif. (June 05); Vihana, Inc. of Sunnyvale, Calif. (May 05); and Topspin Communications, Inc. of Mountain View, Calif. (May 05)
• Cisco announced a definitive agreement to buy NetSift, Inc., a privately-held company in San Diego, Calif., to help Cisco accelerate the integration of additional packet processing capabilities into future core Cisco platforms. (June 05) The acquisition completed in July.
• Cisco announced an agreement to acquire Sheer Networks, Inc., of San Jose, Calif., a provider of intelligent network and service management products. (July 05)
• Cisco announced definitive agreements to acquire KiSS Technology A/S of Hørsholm, Denmark. KiSS-a provider for networked entertainment devices, and represents Cisco’s second acquisition for Linksys. (July 05)
• Cisco announced plans to acquire Nemo Systems, Inc., of Los Altos, Calif. Nemo Systems-provides technology in the network memory space. (Sept. 05)
• Cisco completed the acquisition of two privately-held companies: Sheer Networks of San Jose, Calif. and Petach Tikva, Israel, focused on intelligent network and service management products. (Sept. 05)
• Cisco announced a definitive agreement to acquire Scientific-Atlanta, Inc., and added Digital Video to its portfolio of advanced technologies. (Nov. 05)
• Cisco Systems announced a definitive agreement to purchase components of Cybertrust, Inc.’s security intelligence information service, known as Intellishield Alert Manager.

Cisco Innovations:

• In the security segment, Cisco delivered over 10 new products, software enhancements, and services across its security product portfolio, including new intrusion prevention, application firewall, SSL VPN, and endpoint innovations. (Feb. 05)
• Cisco announced the Cisco® Clear Advantage Program, rewarding channel partners for achieving incremental growth targets when selling the Cisco MDS 9000 series of multilayer intelligent directors and fabric switches. (Feb. 05)
• Cisco channel partner Ronco Communications deployed more than 4,000 Cisco IP Phones for the State University of New York at Cortland. (March 05)
• In more Linksys activity, the division announced that it has shipped more than one million Voice over IP (VoIP) ports in six months, making it the most successful product launch in Linksys history. (March 05)
• Linksys announced its Compact Wireless-G Broadband router (WRT54GC), which provides home and mobile users with the flexibility to provide both seamless wireless access and connectivity for wired Ethernet devices in a compact design. (March 05)
• Cisco introduced the Cisco XR 12000 Series routers, which represents the combination of the Cisco Internetworking Operating System (IOS) XR software with the capabilities of the Cisco 12000 Series routers. (April 05)
• Cisco announced the SMB Support Assistant service offering, a tailor support service for small and medium businesses. SMB Support Assistant is one of the latest enhancements to the Cisco SMB Class Solutions program. (April 05).
• Cisco announced the Solution Incentive Program (SIP) which supports collaboration between networking partners and application developers to provide greater customer value. (April 05)
• Cisco unveiled the Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) 5500 Series, a family of multi-function security appliances that help stop attacks before they spread through the network. (May 05)
• In wireless, Cisco announced new wireless-enabled integrated services routers, delivering highly secure concurrent services for broadband access to small and medium-sized businesses, enterprise small offices and teleworkers. (May 05)
• Cisco announced the Cisco 2700 Series Wireless Location Appliance, the industry’s first easy to deploy solution for simultaneously tracking thousands of IEEE 802.11 enabled wireless clients from directly within a customer’s existing wireless local area network (LAN) infrastructure. (May 05)
• Cisco unveiled Application-Oriented Networking (AON), a new technology that adds intelligence to the network, enabling the network to better understand business-application communications to support more effective and efficient business decisions. (June 05)
• Linksys announced the Wireless-G Travel Router with SpeedBooster which provides users the ability to easily set up a wireless network in a hotel room or through a hotspot, such as in an airport or coffee house. (July 05)
• Linksys introduced its new Wireless-G USB Network Adapter and Wi-Fi Finder (WUSBF54G), making locating and connecting to a network easier. Oct. 05)
• Cisco introduced the company’s newest emerging technology, the Cisco Internet Protocol Interoperability and Collaboration System (IPICS), designed to integrate disparate push-to-talk radio systems together with other communication resources like voice, video and data devices. (Oct. 05)
• Cisco introduced the Carrier Ethernet platform that enable service providers to offer best-in-class Layer 2 and Layer 3 virtual private networks (VPNs) along with voice, video, and data (or “Triple Play”) services for residential and business customers. (Oct. 05)
• Cisco announced advancements to its Network Admission Control (NAC) framework that help protect organizations from threats such as spyware, viruses and worms attempting to gain network access through a growing number of endpoint devices. (Oct. 05)
• Linksys and Skype teamed to launch a new cordless handset to drive Internet phone calling enabling users to making free Skype calls while sitting at home or at the office. (Oct. 05)
• In storage, Cisco announced the availability of the Cisco MDS 9020 Fabric Switch, a 20-port 4 gigabit per second Fibre Channel storage area networking (SAN) switch designed as a cost-effective solution to deploy high performance small and medium size SANs. (Oct. 05)
• Cisco helped channel partners accelerate the upgrade of aging networks with the introduction of Foundation Advantage for Channel Partners, its first integrated channels program designed to help channel partners assess and upgrade customer networks. (Nov. 05)
• Cisco introduced the Cisco Business Communications Solution, specifically designed for small-to-medium businesses (SMBs) and mid-market companies, and featuring purpose-built voice and switching products, plus support, services and financing. (Sept. 05)
• Cisco unveiled an intelligent wireless “mesh” solution to enable municipalities to provide high-speed wireless network and Internet connectivity services. (Nov. 05)
• Cisco launched Linksys One, a complete communications solution for small businesses; Hosted Small Business System (Hosted SBS) becomes a new advanced technology. (Nov. 05)
• Cisco announced the availability of the Cisco Network Application Performance Analysis
• (NAPA) solution, an innovative portfolio of network management products and customer support services. (Dec. 05)
• Cisco announced further momentum in development of the Network Convergence Layer of its IP NGN architecture with the introduction of support for Internet Protocol over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (IPoDWDM) on the Cisco CRS-1. (Dec. 05)
• For service providers, Cisco demonstrated continued leadership by enhancing the open Service Exchange Framework (SEF) of its IP NGN architecture with a series of new and enhanced products offering comprehensive support for all IP applications, including those delivered over an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). (Dec. 05)
• Application Networking Services became a new advanced technology, demonstrating the growing customer demand for improved interaction of applications with enterprise networks. (Dec. 05)
• Cisco announced the Steps to Success channel partner web portal, providing channel partners access to Cisco Lifecycle Services methodology to make deployment of advanced technologies faster and simpler. (Dec. 05)
• Symantec’s Norton Internet Security 2006 will ship with all Linksys wired and wireless routers to further protect customers from online hackers, viruses, and other Internet risks. (Dec. 05)
Cisco Facts:

Headcount for Fiscal Year: 51,840
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $28.5 billion
Patents filed: 1127
Patents issued: 688
Networking Academy locations: 10,000+


• Cisco Systems Intends to Invest Over US $265 Million (SR 1 Billion) in Saudi Arabia over Next Five Years (April 2006)
• Cisco Systems Foundation Awards More than $1.3 Million in Philanthropic Grants to Bay Area Nonprofits (June 2006)
• Cisco Systems to Invest Up to US $275 Million (TRY 400 Million) in Turkey Over Next Five Years (September 2006)
• Cisco Pledges $1 Million Investment for ICT Related Micro- Credit Financing in Developing Countries (December 2006)
• Cisco Selects India as Site for the Cisco Globalization Center (December 2006)
• Cisco Provides Update on US $1.1 Billion Investment in India (December 2006)
• Cisco Makes Strategic Investment in China Communications Services (December 2006)
• Cisco launches its corporate campaign (October 2006)
The campaign, which includes an updated Website and corporate logo, aims to increase Cisco’s awareness level with current and new customers across its four market segments, with a goal to increase the value of Cisco technology, products and brand.
• Cisco Sells More Than 2 Million Integrated Services Routers and Introduces New Features (December 2006)


• Bell Canada Signs Multi-year Contract with RBC Financial Group for Managed Internet Protocol Communications Solution (January 2006)
• BT Awards Contract to Cisco to Deliver IP Next Generation Network Infrastructure for 21st Century Network (March 2006)
• China Mobile Signs Agreement with Cisco for US$ 10 Million in Services (April 2006)
• Cisco Unified Wireless Network Technologies Help Create One of the World’s Largest Airport WLANs for the Airport Authority Hong Kong (April 2006)
• Deutsche Telekom’s T-Online to Offer High-Definition IPTV Service over Cisco IP Next-Generation Network (April 2006)
• Cisco Provides Core Network Infrastructure for World’s Largest Multinational Military Exercise (May 2006)
• University Hospitals Health System Chooses Cisco for System-Wide Converged IP Communications System (June 2006)
• China Telecom Selects Cisco as Primary Supplier for ChinaNet 2006 Expansion (July 2006)
• Health Care Interpreter Network Taps Cisco Technology to Meet Needs of California’s Diverse Patient Population (August 2006)
• Cisco Wireless Goes Green with Hearst Tower, New York (September 2006)
• Cisco TelePresence Meeting Solution to Enable AT&T to Provide End-to-End IP Next-Generation Video Communications (October 2006)
• The City of Amsterdam Starts Building Fibre Network Using Cisco Ethernet Fibre to the Home Technology to Deliver Telephony, TV and Internet Services (October 2006)


• Linksys Announces SIP-Based IP PBX, Desktop Phones, and Gateway for Internet Telephony Service Providers (January 2006)
• New Linksys Indoor and Outdoor Wireless Access Points Use Power Over Ethernet for Easy Installation (January 2006)
• Cisco Announces Next Generation Security Management for Self-Defending Networks (February 2006)
• Cisco Announces New Self Defending Network Security Innovations (February 2006)
• Anti-X advancements set new standards for unified threat prevention; SSL VPN advancements extend highly secure, seamless access to more users.
• Cisco Introduces New Unified Communications System to Streamline Business Processes, Drive Productivity (March 2006)
• Scientific Atlanta Announces New Line of Set-Tops for the Connected Life (April 2006)
• Cisco Announces Next-Generation Application Delivery and Acceleration Solution (April 2006)
• Linksys and Earthlink Announce VoIP Hardware And Service Solution (April 2006)
• Complete VoIP hardware and service package available in Fry’s Electronics Stores.
• Cisco Advances Global Routing Leadership with New Cisco 7200 Router Products (May 2006)
• Linksys Announces Wireless IP Telephony Products Enabling Low-Cost VoIP Calls (May 2006)
• Cisco Systems Delivers NAC Appliance 4.0 – Evolves Policy- compliant Network Security for Distributed Enterprises (July 2006)
• Cisco Announces the World’s Most Compact 40 Gbps-Per-Slot Routing System – the Four-slot CRS-1 (September 2006)
• Cisco Builds on Data Center Switching Leadership (September 2006)
• Cisco Enhances Carrier Ethernet Solution, Unveils New Managed Services Solution, and Advances Global Leadership in ‘Ethernet Fiber to the Home’ Technology (September 2006)
• Service providers can more rapidly deploy business and consumer services over a single carrier ethernet infrastructure for higher revenue, lower costs and improved customer loyalty.
• Cisco Introduces a New Way to Communicate and Collaborate (October 2006)
• Cisco Fortifies Mobile Enterprise Security (October 2006)
• Cisco Extends the Power of Unified Communications to Companies of All Sizes (October 2006)
• New Linksys Wireless-N Gigabit Router Ready to Deliver Entertainment Content (October 2006)
• Linksys and Yahoo! Messenger Announce Cordless Phone That Will Enable Consumers to Make and Receive Low-Cost VoIP Calls (November 2006)
• Linksys Announces iPhone® Family of Voice Over IP Solutions (December 2006)

  • Cisco Systems Completes Acquisition of Scientific-Atlanta (February 2006)
  • Cisco Systems Completes Acquisition of SyPixx Networks (April 2006)
  • Cisco Systems Completes Acquisition of Metreos and Audium (June 2006)
  • Cisco Systems Announces Agreement to Acquire Meetinghouse (July 2006)
  • Cisco Systems Completes Acquisition of Arroyo Video Solutions (September 2006)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire Orative (October 2006)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire Tivella (December 2006)
  • Cisco Completes Acquisition of Greenfield Networks (December 2006)
 Cisco Facts
Headcount for Fiscal Year: 63,050
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $34.9 Billion
Patents filed: 968
Patents issued: 647
Networking Academy locations: 10,000+

  • Prime Minister of Lebanon, United States Secretary of State, American Business Leaders Offer Path to a More Stable Lebanon (January 2007)
  • Cisco Offers Gifts of TelePresence Systems to the Governments of Five Emerging Markets Nations (January 2007)
  • Cisco Helps Women in Emerging Markets Embrace the Need for Technology Skills as International Women’s Day is Celebrated (March 2007)
  • People of Kibera to Get IT Training and Access to Internet, Courtesy of Cisco Networking Academy (June 2007)
  • Cisco and Cambodian Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport to Deliver Advanced Networking Skills to Educators in Cambodia (August 2007)
  • African Leadership Academy and Cisco Announce Creation of ‘Cisco Scholars’ Program to Benefit Disadvantage South African Students (September 2007)
  • Cisco Bolstering its Global Strategy, Investments (October 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Strategic Initiative with China Development Bank to Promote Sustainable Economic Growth in China (November 2007)
  • Cisco Selects Jordan as Launch Pad for Global Talent Acceleration Program in Emerging Countries (November 2007)
  • Cisco Entrepreneur Institute Established at Central European University Business School in Budapest (November 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Venture Capital Initiative in Central and Eastern Europe (November 2007)
  • Cisco Capital and Standard Chartered Bank Launch Financing Program to Help Accelerate the Growth of Small to Medium- sized Businesses in United Arab Emirates (December 2007)

  • MTN Addresses Customer Demand for Mobile Services by Upgrading Network to Help Deliver Voice, Data and Video with Mobility (February 2007)
  • Regus Group Plc To Offer First Public TelePresence Service with Cisco (March 2007)
  • Cleveland Metroparks Zoo Delivers Live, Interactive Zoo Experience to Remote Schools Using Cisco Wireless Network (April 2007)
  • Scottrade announces implementation of new, world-class data center (May 2007)
  • Casema Selects Scientific Atlanta DVB/PVR Set-Top to Expand Digital Footprint in the Netherlands (May 2007)
  • Bell is First in Canada to Achieve Cisco Powered TelePresence Connection Certification (September 2007)
  • EADS Defence & Security and Cisco to Collaborate on Accelerating Development of Next-Generation Defence and Security Communications Networks (September 2007)
  • Polish Medical Air Rescue Uses Cisco Technology to Improve Services (October 2007)
  • William Osler Health Centre Connects Hospitals, Caregivers and Patients with Cisco Medical-Grade Network (October 2007)
  • The City of Amsterdam Starts Building Fibre Network Using Cisco Ethernet Fibre to the Home Technology to Deliver Telephony, TV and Internet Services (October 2007)
  • Hanaro Telecom Delivers World’s Largest Deployment of 100Mbps Broadband Services with Cisco IP NGN Infrastructure (October 2007)
  • Johor State Government Expands ICT Projects with Cisco and MysysNet (October 2007)
  • Norsk Tipping Boosts Lottery Sales with Cisco High Definition Digital Signage Network (October 2007)
  • Amsterdam ArenA and Cisco Create the Smart ‘Connected Stadium’ (November 2007)
  • AT&T Deploys Cisco Carrier Routing System (CRS-1) to Support Advanced Residential and Business Services (December 2007)
  • Steel Manufacturer POSCO Speeds Up Business Communications with Cisco TelePresence (December 2007)

  • Cisco Adds 3G Wireless to Its Integrated Services Routers, Enabling More Connectivity Options for Enterprises and New Business Opportunities (March 2007)
  • Cisco Delivers New Unified Communications Solutions to Improve and Personalize Real-Time Global Business Collaboration (March 2007)
  • Cisco Unveils New TelePresence Solutions to Connect Multiple Locations and Organizations in Real-Time Collaborative Meetings (March 2007)
  • Cisco IP Interoperability and Collaboration System 2.0 Improves Public Safety and Speeds Incident Response (March 2007)
  • Cisco Raises SMB Commitment to New Level (April 2007)
  • Cisco 12000 Series Routing Platform Hits $10 Billion in 10 Years (May 2007)
  • Cisco Unveils In-Store Mobility Solutions for Retail Industry (May 2007)
  • Cisco, EMC, Microsoft Align to Offer Comprehensive Technology Architecture for Helping Protect and Share Sensitive Government Information (July 2007)
  • Cisco Unveils Plans to Transform the Data Center (July 2007)
  • Cisco Brings IP Interoperability to Public Safety ‘Project 25′ Radio Systems (August 2007)
  • Cisco Continues to Deliver on Data Center 3.0 Vision by Integrating VFrame Data Center with VMware Infrastructure (September 2007)
  • Cisco Boosts IP Next-Generation Network Carrier Ethernet Design to Enable the Connected Life (September 2007)
  • Cisco’s ‘Empowered Branch’ Drives Business Productivity, Collaboration, Operational Simplicity with New Routing and Switching Platforms (September 2007)
  • Cisco Delivers Mobile Government Solution to Help Ensure Secure, Reliable Services for State and Local Governments (October 2007)
  • Cisco WebEx and Oracle Launch Collaborative CRM Solution (October 2007)
  • Linksys Optimizes Digital Media Streaming With ULTRA Rangeplus Dual-Band Wireless-N Gigabit Router And PC Card (October 2007)
  • WebEx MeetMeNow Brings Users Face to Face with New Video Conferencing, Integrates with Microsoft Office (November 2007)
  • Cisco Enables Intercompany Communications for Cisco TelePresence (December 2007)

  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire IronPort (January 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire Five Across (February 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire Reactivity (February 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire NeoPath Networks (March 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire WebEx (March 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire SpansLogic (March 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Agreement to Acquire BroadWare Technologies (May 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire Cognio (September 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire Latigent (September 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire Navini Networks (October 2007)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire Securent (November 2007)

 Cisco Facts
Headcount for Fiscal Year: 67,647
Revenue for Fiscal Year: $39.5 billion
Patents filed:
Patents issued:
Networking Academy locations: 11,000+

  • BT and Cisco Aid Collaboration at University of Cambridge (January 2008)
  • Leading Global Academics Create New Corporate Sustainability Approach to Build Innovation and Global Collaboration (January 2008)
  • Cisco Announces AED 5.8 Billion Five-Year ICT Investment Plan for the United Arab Emirates (January 2008)
  • Qatar Science & Technology Park and Cisco Collaborate to Help Improve Human Capital and Technology Development (January 2008)
  • Prince Abdulaziz Bin Musaed Economic City to Create Quad Play Infrastructure with Cisco Technology (January 2008)
  • Cisco to Launch Mediterranean Youth Technology Club (MYTecC) and the Digital Cities Project Aimed at Long Term Economic and Social Development (January 2008)
  • Cisco Announces $10 Million Investment to Support Job Creation and Economic Development in the Palestinian Territories (January 2008)
  • Cisco Launches Talent-Development Strategy for India (February 2008)
  • Cisco Selects South Africa as Launch Pad for Global Talent Acceleration Program in Emerging Africa (March 2008)
  • Cisco Capital Engages Local Finance Organisations to Launch Innovative Financing Programs in Central and Eastern Europe (April 2008)
  • Cisco Networking Academy Program Announces Record Student Numbers in Morocco (April 2008)
  • 17 Schools in Moscow Launch Cisco Network Academy Courses to Address IT Skills Gap (April 2008)
  • VTN Implements First Cisco TelePresence Systems in Vietnam (May 2008)
  • Cisco Agreement with the Government of Portugal to Improve Access to Networking Training, Narrow the
  •  ICT Skills Gap and Increase Employment Opportunities (May 2008)
  • Cisco Increases Donation to $1 Million for China Earthquake Relief (May 2008)
  • Central and Eastern European StudentsWin Prestigious Cisco Networking Competition (July 2008)
  • Cisco Announces Winners of First Annual ‘Growing with Technology’ Award in Poland (August 2008)
  • Cisco Launches Networking Academy Training Centre in Kenya (September 2008)
  • Cisco Announces Series of Strategic Initiatives with Bahrain Government (September 2008)
  • NATO Uses Cisco TelePresence to Help Afghanistan Soldiers ‘Meet’ Loved Ones in Europe (September 2008)
  • Governor of Buenos Aires and John Chambers Discuss Socio- economic Development over Cisco TelePresence (October 2008)
  • Cisco Expands Talent-Development Initiative in Russia (October 2008)
  • Cisco to Outline Key Initiatives on Protecting Intellectual Property Rights At Arab World Consumer and Brand Protection Forum in Jeddah (October 2008)
  • Cisco to Participate in Singapore’s Initiative to Create Next-Generation Public Transport System (November 2008)
  • UK IT Departments Confident Despite ‘Reality Gaps’ in Key Technology Projects (December 2008)
  • Cisco Launches Innovation Centre to Build Next Generation Services in Singapore (December 2008)
  • First Cisco Entrepreneur Institute Classes Starting in Ankara (December 2008)
  • Customers:
  • TELUS Becomes First Canadian Telecommunications Provider to Deploy and Support Cisco TelePresence (January 2008)
  • Shanghai’s Oriental Cable Network Selects Cisco to Deploy First ROADM Optical Networking Technology in Mainland China (January 2008)
  • The Oriental Bangkok First Hotel in the World to Deploy 802.11n Wireless Technology (January 2008)
  • Prince Abdulaziz Bin Musaed Economic City to Create Quad Play Infrastructure with Cisco Technology (January 2008)
  • Cisco Named as a Global Strategic Technology Provider for Newly Launched ‘Silatech’ Youth Employment Initiative (January 2008)
  • Videotron Delivers North America’s Fastest Internet Access over Cable for Residential and Business Customers (February 2008)
  • Bell and Cisco to Deliver Enhanced Managed Services to Canadian Business, Create a Network of Knowledge Centres (February 2008)
  • AT&T First Service Provider to Deliver Intercompany Cisco TelePresence for Businesses around the World (April 2008)
  • Coca-Cola Enterprises Leads in Global Collaboration and Next-Generation Business Processes with Cisco Technologies (April 2008)
  • Grand Copthorne Waterfront Hotel to Redefine Guest Experience through Cisco Unified Communications (March 2008)
  • Cisco and MRCB to Establish First-of-Its-Kind Intelligent Real Estate Centres in Malaysia (March 2008)
  • Adena Health System Brings Critical-Care Specialists to Newborns in Rural Ohio with Telemedicine Video Conferencing on a Cisco Integrated Network (April 2008)
  • Cisco Networking Solutions Provide 21st-Century Learning Environment for K-12 Students (May 2008)
  • 1-800-FLOWERS.COM Achieves Business and Environmental Objectives with Cisco WebEx (May 2008)
  • Johor State Government to Deploy Cisco Unified Communications to Enhance Collaboration in New Administrative Centre (June 2008)
  • Cisco Switched Digital Video Platform Selected by Rogers Cable (June 2008)
  • Tata Communications Launches Telepresence Services Worldwide (July 2008)
  • SINA Works with Cisco to Offer New Online Video Interview Experience (July 2008)
  • The Network Becomes the Business Platform at Eurobank EFG in Serbia (July 2008)
  • BT Select Cisco Aggregation Services Routers for Next- Generation Managed Services (July 2008)
  • Cisco IP Video Technology to Enable Groundbreaking NBC Coverage of Beijing Olympic Games (August 2008)
  • Terremark Selects Cisco Virtualization Technology for Infinistructure Utility-Computing Platform in Europe (August 2008)
  • Cisco to Power Global Video Transmission of News Broadcasters’ Coverage of the 2008 U.S. Presidential Nominating Conventions (September 2008)
  • Epic Games Develops Cross-Platform Games and Game Engine at Full Throttle with Cisco Catalyst 6500 Virtual Switching System (September 2008)
  • Amtrak to Help Protect Maintenance Facilities with Cisco’s IP-Based Video Surveillance (September 2008)
  • Procter & Gamble Implements Cisco TelePresence Solution in Latin America (September 2008)
  • HSBC Opens Global Network of Virtual Conferencing Rooms (September 2008)
  • Cisco Takes Consumers Beyond Connectivity to ‘Visual Networking’ with Internet Protocol Next-Generation Home Gateway (January 2008)
  • Cisco Pushes Firewall and VPN Performance to New Heights With New Adaptive Security Appliances (January 2008)
  • Cisco Introduces New Switching Foundation for Data Center 3.0 Transformation (January 2008)
  • Cisco Introduces World’s Most Advanced Networking Semiconductor: Cisco QuantumFlow Processor (February 2008)
  • New Cisco Aggregation Services Routers to Transform the Network Edge for Service Providers and Enterprises (March 2008)
  • Customer Adoption Drives Cisco TelePresence to 500-Unit Milestone (April 2008)
  • Cisco ‘Empowered Branch’ Delivers More Applications and New Business Models; Opens Routers to Customers and Third- Party Applications (April 2008)
  • Cisco Innovation Strategy Fuels Data Center Transformation (April 2008)
  • Cisco Expands Self-Defending Network, Strengthens Its Role In IT Risk Management for Security and Compliance (April 2008)
  • Cisco Introduces Personal TelePresence (May 2008)
  • Cisco Introduces New Innovations in Digital Media (June 2008)
  • Cisco Expands Virtualization Across Data Center Portfolio for More Efficient and Sustainable IT Operations (June 2008)
  • Simultaneous Dual-N Band Wireless Router (July 2008)
  • Cisco Delivers New Data Center 3.0 Technology for Storage Area Networks (September 2008)
  • ‘Cisco Virtual Office’ Extends the Enterprise, Increases Productivity and Secure Collaboration for Remote Workforces (September 2008)
  • Cisco Targets $34B Market with New Collaboration Portfolio (September 2008)
  • Cisco and VMware Accelerate Innovation in Data Center Virtualization (November 2008) 
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire DiviTech (June 2008)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire Pure Networks (July 2008)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire PostPath (August 2008)
  • Cisco Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire Jabber (September 2008)

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